[FPSPACE] Death Star

Keith Gottschalk kgottschalk at uwc.ac.za
Tue Jan 15 11:28:08 EST 2013


The dimensions of the Death Star make British Interplanetary authors seem very modest for proposing an interstellar worldship of only 500 million tonnes carrying a mere 1 million astronauts.

    I suspect that the White House estimates of the cost are understated - think James Webb & multiply by ten....  :)

yours, Keith

>>> Michael Launer  01/14/13 3:04 PM >>>
You really ought to read what Paul Shawcross wrote -- it's very droll. 
 
https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/response/isnt-petition-response-youre-looking
 
Whouda thunk the Executive Branch had a sense of humor?!
 


--- On Mon, 1/14/13, fpspace-request at www.friends-partners.org  wrote:


From: fpspace-request at www.friends-partners.org 
Subject: FPSPACE Digest, Vol 106, Issue 6
To: fpspace at www.friends-partners.org
Date: Monday, January 14, 2013, 7:53 AM

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Today's Topics:

   1. Re: Chang'e-2 data rate from lunar orbit? (Paolo Ulivi)
   2. No "Death Star" construction in USA's future (Peter Pesavento)
   3. Re: No "Death Star" construction in USA's future (Anatoly Zak)
   4. Re: No "Death Star" construction in USA's future (LARRY KLAES )
   5. Official White House refusal response to the "Death Star"
      Construction Petition (Peter Pesavento)
   6. KSLV/Naro Launch Attempt January 25 (?) (Morris Jones)
   7. Fwd: [lunar-update] Reclaiming Our Future in Space .... -    and
      -    2009-HOME a film by Yann Arthus-Bertrand (LARRY KLAES )
   8. Fwd: [New post] What is the Space Shuttle's Place in Modern
      American History? (LARRY KLAES )


----------------------------------------------------------------------

Message: 1
Date: Fri, 11 Jan 2013 18:48:47 +0100
From: Paolo Ulivi <pao.ulivi at gmail.com>
To: JEOberg <jeoberg at comcast.net>
Cc: fpspace at friends-partners.org
Subject: Re: [FPSPACE] Chang'e-2 data rate from lunar orbit?
Message-ID:
    0Ovrc_LW0uVmgBB3qaW9x2rwoJkDnbWw at mail.gmail.com>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1

2 Mbps according to www.ias.ac.in/jess/dec2005/ilc-26.pdf

On Fri, Jan 11, 2013 at 2:44 PM, JEOberg <jeoberg at comcast.net> wrote:
> Terrific! Thank you!!
>
>
>
>
> ----- Original Message ----- From: "Paolo Ulivi" <pao.ulivi at gmail.com>
> To: "James Oberg" <jameseoberg at comcast.net>
> Cc: <fpspace at friends-partners.org>
> Sent: Friday, January 11, 2013 7:31 AM
> Subject: Re: [FPSPACE] Chang'e-2 data rate from lunar orbit?
>
>
>> I have seen 3 megabits per second in the literature and 750 kbps in L2
>>
>>
>> On Fri, Jan 11, 2013 at 2:04 PM, James Oberg <jameseoberg at comcast.net>
>> wrote:
>>>
>>> I'm doing a story on the reduced data rate at the toutatis fly-by for
>>> chang'e-2,
>>> about 20 kbps, and I want to compare it to the nominal data rate from
>>> lunar
>>> orbit
>>>  -- but dang, I can't find that value. Can anybody help, please?
>>>
>>> JimO
>>>
>>>
>>> _______________________________________________
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>


------------------------------

Message: 2
Date: Sat, 12 Jan 2013 08:58:51 -0500
From: "Peter Pesavento" <pjp961 at svol.net>
To: <fpspace at friends-partners.org>
Subject: [FPSPACE] No "Death Star" construction in USA's future
Message-ID: 
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

Associated Press, via  yahoo news



http://news.yahoo.com/obama-wont-support-building-death-star-084649302.html






<http://news.yahoo.com/obama-wont-support-building-death-star-084649302.html
#prev#prev> prev
<http://news.yahoo.com/obama-wont-support-building-death-star-084649302.html
#next#next> next 



Obama won't support building 'Death Star'


Associated Press - 5 hrs ago



WASHINGTON (AP) - A "Death Star" won't be a part of the U.S. military's
arsenal any time soon.

More than 34,000 people have signed an online petition calling on the Obama
administration to build the "Star Wars" inspired super-weapon to spur job
growth and bolster national defense.

But in a posting Friday on the White House website, Paul Shawcross, an
administration adviser on science and space, says a Death Star would cost
too much to build - an estimated $850 quadrillion - at a time the White
House is working to reduce the federal budget.

Besides, Shawcross says, the Obama administration "does not support blowing
up planets."

The U.S., Shawcross points out, is already involved in several
out-of-this-world projects, including the International Space Station, which
is currently orbiting Earth with a half-dozen astronauts.



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Message: 3
Date: Sat, 12 Jan 2013 09:10:29 -0500
From: Anatoly Zak <agzak at optonline.net>
To: Untitled <fpspace at friends-partners.org>
Subject: Re: [FPSPACE] No "Death Star" construction in USA's future
Message-ID: agzak at optonline.net>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"

Probably, the White House could use these 34,000 signatures to start its
database of insane people prohibited to own guns :)


On 1/12/13 8:58 AM, "Peter Pesavento" <pjp961 at svol.net> wrote:

> Associated Press, via  yahoo news
>  
> http://news.yahoo.com/obama-wont-support-building-death-star-084649302.html
>  
>  
> WASHINGTON (AP) ? A "Death Star" won't be a part of the U.S. military's
> arsenal any time soon.
> 
> More than 34,000 people have signed an online petition calling on the Obama
> administration to build the "Star Wars" inspired super-weapon to spur job
> growth and bolster national defense.
> 
> 
> _______________________________________________
> FPSPACE mailing list
> FPSPACE at www.friends-partners.org
> http://www.friends-partners.org/mailman/listinfo/fpspace

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Message: 4
Date: Sat, 12 Jan 2013 14:15:03 +0000
From: "LARRY KLAES " <ljk4 at msn.com>
To: "Peter Pesavento " <pjp961 at svol.net>,
    "fpspace at friends-partners.org " <fpspace at friends-partners.org>
Subject: Re: [FPSPACE] No "Death Star" construction in USA's future
Message-ID: <BAY170-DS42E50FC3385EEFE929CC519C280 at phx.gbl>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-15"

Did they really use that hoary old cliche out of this world when talking about space? i note they did not list any other projects besides the ISS, which wasnt started by the as it is. Larry

----------
Sent from AT&T's Wireless network using Windows Live Hotmail


-----Original Message-----
From: Peter Pesavento
Sent: 1/12/2013 1:58:51 PM
To: fpspace at friends-partners.org
Subject: [FPSPACE] No "Death Star" construction in USA's future
Associated Press, via  yahoo news

http://news.yahoo.com/obama-wont-support-building-death-star-084649302.html


prev <http://news.yahoo.com/obama-wont-support-building-death-star-084649302.html#prev#prev> next <http://news.yahoo.com/obama-wont-support-building-death-star-084649302.html#next#next>
Obama won't support building 'Death Star'
Associated Press - 5 hrs ago


WASHINGTON (AP) - A "Death Star" won't be a part of the U.S. military's arsenal any time soon.

More than 34,000 people have signed an online petition calling on the Obama administration to build the "Star Wars" inspired super-weapon to spur job growth and bolster national defense.

But in a posting Friday on the White House website, Paul Shawcross, an administration adviser on science and space, says a Death Star would cost too much to build - an estimated $850 quadrillion - at a time the White House is working to reduce the federal budget.

Besides, Shawcross says, the Obama administration "does not support blowing up planets."

The U.S., Shawcross points out, is already involved in several out-of-this-world projects, including the International Space Station, which is currently orbiting Earth with a half-dozen astronauts.

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Message: 5
Date: Sat, 12 Jan 2013 10:06:35 -0500
From: "Peter Pesavento" <pjp961 at svol.net>
To: <fpspace at friends-partners.org>
Subject: [FPSPACE] Official White House refusal response to the "Death
    Star"    Construction Petition
Message-ID: 
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"

https://petitions.whitehouse.gov/response/isnt-petition-response-youre-looki
ng





It's somewhat tongue-in-cheek.  Read on.







Official White House Response to Secure resources and funding, and begin
construction of a Death Star by 2016. 




This Isn't the Petition Response You're Looking For





By Paul Shawcross



The Administration shares your desire for job creation and a strong national
defense, but a Death Star isn't on the horizon. Here are a few reasons:

*                       The construction of the Death Star has been
estimated <http://www4.lehigh.edu/business/about/deathstar.aspx>  to cost
more than $850,000,000,000,000,000. We're working hard to reduce the
deficit, not expand it.

*                       The Administration does not support blowing up
planets.

*                       Why would we spend countless taxpayer dollars on a
Death Star with a fundamental flaw that can be exploited by a one-man
starship?

However, look carefully (here's how <http://spotthestation.nasa.gov/> ) and
you'll notice something already floating in the sky -- that's no Moon, it's
a Space Station! Yes, we already have a giant, football field-sized
International <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/index.html>
Space Station in orbit around the Earth that's helping us learn how humans
can live and thrive in space for long durations. The Space Station has six
astronauts -- American, Russian, and Canadian -- living in it right now,
conducting research, learning how to live and work in space over long
periods of time, routinely welcoming visiting spacecraft and repairing
onboard garbage mashers, etc. We've also got two robot science labs -- one
wielding a laser <http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/msl/index.html>  --
roving around Mars, looking at whether life ever existed on the Red Planet.



Keep in mind, space is no longer just government-only. Private American
companies, through NASA's Commercial Crew
<http://www.nasa.gov/offices/c3po/home/index.html>  and Cargo Program Office
(C3PO), are ferrying cargo -- and soon, crew -- to space for NASA, and are
pursuing human <http://goldenspikecompany.com/>  missions to the Moon this
decade.



Even though the United States doesn't have anything that can do the Kessel
Run in less than 12 parsecs, we've got two spacecraft leaving the Solar
System <http://voyager.jpl.nasa.gov/>  and we're building a probe that will
<http://solarprobe.jhuapl.edu/>  fly to the exterior layers of the Sun. We
are discovering hundreds of new planets in other star systems
<http://kepler.nasa.gov/>  and building a much more powerful
<http://www.jwst.nasa.gov/about.html>  successor to the Hubble Space
Telescope that will see back to the early days of the universe.

We don't have a Death Star, but we do have floating
<http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/station/main/spheres.html>  robot
assistants on the Space Station, a President who knows his way around a
light saber <http://www.flickr.com/photos/whitehouse/3994322108/>  and
advanced
<http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2012/02/07/president-obama-launches-marshmal
low-cannon>  (marshmallow) cannon, and the Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency, which is supporting research on building Luke's arm
<http://www.dekaresearch.com/deka_arm.shtml> , floating droids
<http://www.darpa.mil/NewsEvents/Releases/2012/12/06.aspx> , and quadruped
walkers <http://www.darpa.mil/newsevents/releases/2012/09/10.aspx> .

We are living in the future! Enjoy it. Or better yet, help build it by
pursuing a career in a science, technology, engineering or math-related
field. The President has held the
<http://www.whitehouse.gov/photos-and-video/video/2010/10/27/first-ever-whit
e-house-science-fair>  first-ever White House science
<http://www.whitehouse.gov/photos-and-video/video/2012/02/09/2012-white-hous
e-science-fair>  fairs and Astronomy
<http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/Always-Reach-for-the-Stars-Astronomy-Night-a
t-the-White-House>  Night on the South Lawn because he knows these domains
are critical to our country's future, and to ensuring the United States
continues leading the world in doing big things.



If you do pursue a career in a science, technology, engineering or
math-related field, the Force will be with us! Remember, the Death Star's
power to destroy a planet, or even a whole star system, is insignificant
next to the power of the Force.



Paul Shawcross is Chief of the Science and Space Branch at the White House
Office of Management and Budget



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Message: 6
Date: Sun, 13 Jan 2013 21:15:11 +0000
From: Morris Jones <morrisjones at hotmail.com>
To: "fpspace at friends-partners.org" <fpspace at friends-partners.org>
Subject: [FPSPACE] KSLV/Naro Launch Attempt January 25 (?)
Message-ID: <BAY160-W2751C554AD5B69CF63803CAA2F0 at phx.gbl>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-1"





South Korea tries again.   SEOUL, Jan. 13 (Yonhap) -- South Korea is expected to try again to launch its 
space rocket later this month after successfully conducting experiments to check 
if all systems are working properly, a government source said Sunday.

   
The official said South Korean and Russian researchers are expected to discuss 
results of repairs made to the rocket late last year and touch on the present 
state of the Naro-1 rocket. He added Seoul successfully carried out combustion 
tests on the kick motor on the locally built second stage solid fuel rocket, 
making it likely that the launch will take place soon.
http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/national/2013/01/13/43/0301000000AEN20130113001100315F.HTML                                
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Message: 7
Date: Mon, 14 Jan 2013 08:58:31 +0000
From: "LARRY KLAES " <ljk4 at msn.com>
To: "fpspace at friends-partners.org " <fpspace at friends-partners.org>
Subject: [FPSPACE] Fwd: [lunar-update] Reclaiming Our Future in Space
    .... -    and -    2009-HOME a film by Yann Arthus-Bertrand
Message-ID: <BAY170-DS46B34FE71BA13F7219D859C2E0 at phx.gbl>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-15"



----------
Sent from AT&T's Wireless network using Windows Live Hotmail


-----Original Message-----
From: Larry Kellogg
Sent: 1/14/2013 6:07:07 AM
To: lunar-update at mailman1.altair.com
Subject: [lunar-update] Reclaiming Our Future in Space .... - and - 2009-HOME a film by Yann Arthus-Bertrand
Reclaiming Our Future in Space .... - and - 2009-HOME a film by Yann Arthus-Bertrand

Dennis Wingo posted on his blog a commentary about those that say we should not be shooting money to the Moon and taking it away from children that need food.???

Having read (and I hope you do as well) I was looking for more about feeding children and recalled the 2009 HOME Project by???Yann Arthus-Bertrand. This is a stunning 1 hour and 27 minute film about what we as Homo Sapiens???have??????been doing to this planet, our present home. You can view on YouTube<http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jqxENMKaeCU>. I had down loaded and saved as mp4, 1.29 GB, 720 x 1280. ???I recommend watching all the way through as near the end there are some great examples of what is being done to help ensure that we will continue be able to survive. ???I thought about what could be learned for use if we expect to be able to also move off world. (how would you make living soil<http://www.the-living-soil.com/> for trees on the Moon?)

-----------------------------------------------
http://denniswingo.wordpress.com/2013/01/08/reclaiming-our-future-in-space/
Reclaiming Our Future in???Space..<http://denniswingo.wordpress.com/2013/01/08/reclaiming-our-future-in-space/>
Posted on???January 8, 2013<http://denniswingo.wordpress.com/2013/01/08/reclaiming-our-future-in-space/>

[http://denniswingo.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/screen-shot-2012-12-29-at-6-34-20-pm.png?w=580]<http://denniswingo.files.wordpress.com/2012/12/screen-shot-2012-12-29-at-6-34-20-pm.png>

The Path of History

The above quotation was from an article critical of the space program in life magazine from August 15, 1969, barely two weeks after the return of the Apollo 11 from its historic journey. ???It illustrates in a concise nutshell the disconnect between the goals of NASA and the perception of the value of space to American public in the late 1960's. ???How did this happen? ???This disconnect has never truly been overcome and it must, because the money that was spent on the space program then, and since, has been the downpayment on the future of mankind. ???How different these visions are!

snip
-----------------------------------------------

More from moonandback???http://moonandback.com/2013/01/09/reclaiming-our-future-in-space-2/

- LRK -


One of the links to HOME for a YouTube viewing which also includes the transcript. ???If you read the transcript you will get the message but do take an hour and a half to view the movie and take a close look at our only HOME. If you want to live off world pick your path carefully.

- LRK -

-----------------------------------------------
http://anuradhaedirisuriya.wordpress.com/2011/11/29/home-a-stunning-visual-portrayal-of-earth-by-yann-arthus-bertrand/#more-58
HOME - A Stunning Visual Portrayal of Earth by Yann???Arthus-Bertrand

In the past 200,000 years, humans have upset the balance of planet Earth, a balance established by nearly four billion years of evolution. We must act now. It is too late to be a pessimist. The price is too high. Humanity has little time to reverse the trend and change its patterns of consumption.

Through visually stunning footage from over fifty countries, all shot from an aerial perspective,???Yann Arthus-Bertrand<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yann_Arthus-Bertrand>???shows us a view most of us have never seen. He shares with us his sense of awe about our planet and his concern for its health. With this film, Arthus-Bertrand hopes to provide a stepping-stone to further the call to action to take care of our HOME.
snip

It's too late to be a pessimist. I know that a single human can knock down every wall. It's too late to be a pessimist. Worldwide, four children out of five attend school. Never has learning been given to so many human beings. Everyone, from richest to poorest, can make a contribution. Lesotho, one of the world's poorest countries, is proportionally the one that invests most in its people's education. Qatar, one of the world's richest states has opened its doors to the best universities. Culture, education, research and innovation are inexhaustible resources. In the face of misery and suffering, millions of N.G.O's prove that solidarity between peoples is stronger than the selfishness of nations. In Bangladesh, a man thought the unthinkable and founded a bank that lends only to the poor. In barely 30 years, it has changed the lives of 150 million people around the world. Antarctica is a continent with immense natural resources that no country can claim for itself, a natural reserve d
evoted to peace and science. A treaty signed by 49 states has made it a treasure shared by all humanity. It's too late to be a pessimist. Governments have acted to protect nearly two percent of the world's territorial waters. It's not much but it's two times more than 10 years ago. The first natural parks were created just over a century ago. They cover over 13% of the continents. They create spaces where human activity is in step with the preservation of species, soils and landscapes.

snip

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jqxENMKaeCU
-----------------------------------------------

More clips about HOME project (25)
- LRK -

-----------------------------------------------
http://www.youtube.com/user/homeproject

HOME a film by Yann Arthus-Bertrand

snip
-----------------------------------------------

Global Warming, no Global Warming --- hmmm - has your island disappeared yet?
What innovative ways can be devised to make the best of what is to come?
Gee, if we needed Methane for a rocket engine to the Moon maybe we could be looking for sources - cows <http://timeforchange.org/are-cows-cause-of-global-warming-meat-methane-CO2> - permafrost <http://cr4.globalspec.com/thread/74086/Capturing-Methane-Releases-From-Permafrost> - deep-sea methane seeps<http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/07/120726135149.htm>???- Methane Hydrate<http://www.ornl.gov/info/ornlreview/v33_2_00/methane.htm>.
- LRK -

-----------------------------------------------
http://www.goodplanet.info/eng/
GoodPlanet

DEBATES
Thawing of Permafrost Expected to Cause Significant Additional Global Warming, Not yet Accounted for in Climate Predictions<http://www.goodplanet.info/eng/Contenu/Points-de-vues/Thawing-of-Permafrost-Expected-to-Cause-Significant-Additional-Global-Warming-Not-yet-Accounted-for-in-Climate-Predictions/(theme)/297>

snip
-----------------------------------------------

So do we save the planet in time to be able to also move off world or will we have hit a tipping point and not be able to muster the resources to do so!
- LRK -

Web Site:???http://lkellogg.vttoth.com/LarryRussellKellogg/
BlogSpot:???http://kelloggserialreports.blogspot.com/
WordPress:???http://lrkellogg.wordpress.com/
RSS link:???http://kelloggserialreports.blogspot.com/atom.xml
Newsletter:???https://mailman1.altair.com/mailman/listinfo/lunar-update
==============================================================
<http://www.nasa.gov/><http://www.cnn.com/2012/05/26/world/spacex/index.html><http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2405092,00.asp>
http://www.homethemovie.org/
HOME the movie in French
Voir le film<http://youtu.be/NNGDj9IeAuI?hd=1>
Joomla SEO by AceSEF<http://www.joomace.net/joomla-extensions/acesef>
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NNGDj9IeAuI&feature=youtu.be&hd=1
snip
==============================================================
http://www.actioncarbone.org/index.php/en/projects?
actioncarbone.org<http://actioncarbone.org>

The Action Carbone program contributes to the development of numerous worldwide projects that fight against global warming. Discover how each project helps reducing CO2 emissions and benefits to local communities, by clicking on these pictures.

snip???
==============================================================

WHAT THE MIND CAN CONCEIVE, AND BELIEVE, IT WILL ACHIEVE - LRK -

==============================================================
This is the???lunar-update???at
https://mailman1.altair.com/mailman/listinfo/lunar-update
To see the collection of prior postings to the list, visit the
lunar-update???Archives.
This list is a moderated list.
The moderator is Larry Kellogg (larry.kellogg AT???gmail.com<http://gmail.com/>)
Please send suggestions for postings directly to Larry.
==============================================================
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Message: 8
Date: Mon, 14 Jan 2013 12:53:33 +0000
From: "LARRY KLAES " <ljk4 at msn.com>
To: "HASTRO-L at listserv.wvu.edu " <HASTRO-L at listserv.wvu.edu>,
    "fpspace at friends-partners.org " <fpspace at friends-partners.org>
Subject: [FPSPACE] Fwd: [New post] What is the Space Shuttle's Place
    in Modern American History?
Message-ID: <BAY170-DS43DD5F9588073D672F314B9C2E0 at phx.gbl>
Content-Type: text/plain; charset="iso-8859-15"



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Sent from AT&T's Wireless network using Windows Live Hotmail


-----Original Message-----
From: Roger Launius's Blog
Sent: 1/14/2013 11:31:53 AM
To: ljk4 at msn.com
Subject: [New post] What is the Space Shuttle's Place in Modern American History?
launiusr posted: "[caption id="attachment_189" align="aligncenter" width="640"] Two Space Shuttles on the launch pads at Kennedy Space Center in 2008.[/caption] It began with the desire to ensure a continuous human presence in Earth orbit during the post-Moon landing er"
Respond to this post by replying above this line

New post on Roger Launius's Blog
        [http://1.gravatar.com/blavatar/5ab615dc2687e96bf21dc4fa4be2f3ff?s=32&ts=1358163112]
[http://1.gravatar.com/avatar/488baba4b54ec638fa19eeebd09b6b69?s=50&d=identicon&r=G]<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/author/launiusr/>
What is the Space Shuttle???s Place in Modern American History?<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/2013/01/14/what-is-the-space-shuttles-place-in-modern-american-history/>
by launiusr<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/author/launiusr/>

[http://launiusr.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/both-nasa-shuttles-on-pad-20083-e1273174506809.jpg?w=560]<http://launiusr.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/both-nasa-shuttles-on-pad-20083-e1273174506809.jpg>

Two Space Shuttles on the launch pads at Kennedy Space Center in 2008.

It began with the desire to ensure a continuous human presence in Earth orbit during the post-Moon landing era. The result of this effort has required a continued access to orbit with the Space Shuttle, giving humans the experience of living and working in space. Through successes and failures, a diverse and highly skilled group of NASA employees and contractors, as well as international collaborators, worked together to accomplish the goal of sustaining a human presence in low-Earth orbit.

While experience in the 1980s tempered earlier predictions in the 1970s about cost-effective operations, the Space Shuttle proved to be a remarkable space access vehicle that served effectively, if not inexpensively, for thirty years of human spaceflight. Its accomplishments were impressive between 1981 and 2011:

*   The Space Shuttle successfully met many of the post-Apollo goals for human spaceflight.
*   It flew 135 missions over 30 years, with multiple flights per year except during two stand-downs after accidents.
*   The shuttle took 335 people into space.
*   It delivered satellites, telescopes, and planetary probes. It recovered some satellites for refurbishment.
*   It carried research experiments on every flight and full laboratories almost 20 times.
*   It opened the door to broad U.S./Russian collaboration in space with the Shuttle/Mir program in the 1990s.
*   It made 36 trips to assemble and supply the International Space Station between 1998 and 2011.

Even so, the Space Shuttle did not lower the cost of flight into orbit-its most significant failing-and the Challenger and Columbia tragedies served as grim reminders that spaceflight is always risky.

The Space Shuttle program, while an enormous achievement, has wrought something of a divided legacy. In fundamental ways it may be viewed as both a triumph and a tragedy. As a symbol of American technological excellence, and as a reliable, mature, flexible system on which stunning scientific experiments may be conducted it receives high marks. But the program failed to achieve one of its core objectives, lowering the cost of reaching Earth orbit. Granted, this is an extraordinarily elusive goal, but disappointment over not achieving it has plagued NASA and hampered spaceflight ever since. It remains a goal that must be emphasized in the development of any new vehicle that might eventually replace the Space Shuttle.

On January 5, 1972, Richard Nixon announced the decision to build the Space Shuttle by saying, "I have decided today that the United States should proceed at once with the development of an entirely new type of space transportation system designed to help transform the space frontier of the 1970s into familiar territory, easily accessible for human endeavor in the 1980s and '90s. This system will center on a space vehicle that can shuttle repeatedly from earth to orbit and back. It will revolutionize transportation into near space, by routinizing it."

For all of the very real shortcomings of the Space Shuttle Program, there is no question but that Nixon's statement came to pass with this NASA vehicle. It routinized low-Earth orbit in ways never before possible. Earth orbit is no longer a frontier; we understand exactly what to expect and how effectively to utilize it. The Space Shuttle made that possible. It paved the way for the incorporation of low-Earth orbit into the normal realm of human activities.

The Space Shuttle was never a perfect vehicle and its operation over thirty years had its share of failures, but it certainly was one of the most impressive science and technology efforts in human history. A massively complex system-with more than 200,000 separate components that must work in synchronization with each other and to specifications more exacting than any other technological system in human history-the Space Shuttle must be viewed as a triumph of engineering and excellence in technological management. As such it has been an enormously successful program. The research, development, and operation of the Space Shuttle represented a worthy follow-on to the spectacularly successful Apollo program of the 1960s and early 1970s.

launiusr<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/author/launiusr/> | January 14, 2013 at 11:31 am | Tags: Department of Defense<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?tag=department-of-defense>, History<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?tag=history>, International Space Station<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?tag=international-space-station>, NASA<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?tag=nasa>, politics<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?tag=politics>, public perceptions<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?tag=public-perceptions>, public policy<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?tag=public-policy>, space shuttle<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?tag=space-shuttle>, U.S. Civil Space<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?tag=u-s-civil-space> | Categories: aeronautics<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?cat=74530>, History<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?cat=678>, Space<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?cat=174>, Space Shuttle<http://launiusr.wordpress.com/?cat=35648325> | URL: http://wp.me/pwYu1-1cE

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