[FPSPACE] OSCAR-CLASS subs and Soviet RORSATs

JamesOberg@aol.com JamesOberg@aol.com
Fri, 1 Sep 2000 17:23:11 EDT


JimO: This is a long LONG historical piece tying the recent Kursk tragedy 
with the nuclear-powered radar ocean reconnaissance satellites of the 1970s 
and 1980s. Fascinating details filling in a lot of blank spots!


 HISTORY AND TECHNICAL INFO FOR OSCAR I&II  CLASS SUBMARINES

 MOSCOW TEKHNIKA I VOORUZHENIYE - TEXT  IN RUSSIAN NO. 5-6, MAY-JUNE 2000 PP 
47-51

    [EXCERPT ON OSCAR I&II CLASS SUBMARINES:  "PROJECT 949 (949A)]

     ON 23 JUNE 1968, WORK WAS BEGUN ON THE FIRST NEW GENERATION  AMERICAN 
NUCLEAR STRIKE AIRCRAFT CARRIER AT THE WHARVES OF NEWPORT NEWS SHIPBUILDING - 
THE CVN 68 NIMITZ - THE PROGENITOR OF A LARGE SERIES OF SHIPS OF THIS CLASS, 
THE BUILDING OF WHICH CONTINUES TO THIS DAY.   IN COMPARISON TO ITS 
PREDECESSORS, THE "NIMITZ" POSSESSED GREATER COMBAT SURVIVABILITY AND 
INCREASED STRIKE POWER.   IN ITS AVIATION WING WERE INCLUDED THE FIRST 4TH 
GENERATION FIGHTERS IN THE WORLD - THE GRUMMAN F-14A "TOMCAT" DECK 
INTERCEPTORS, CAPABLE OF DESTROYING AIR TARGETS IN A RANGE OF ALTITUDES FROM 
10 TO 22000 M, WHILE SIMULTANEOUSLY SHOOTING AT UP TO FOUR ENEMY AIRCRAFT 
WITH FOUR AGM-54 "PHOENIX" LONG-RANGE MISSILES.   THE NEW INTERCEPTORS 
INTERACTED WITH THE DECK AIRCRAFT DRLO GRUMMAN E-2C "HAWKEYE", WHICH 
POSSESSED THE ABILITY TO TRACK SEVERAL TENS OF AIRCRAFT OR CRUISE MISSILES 
FLYING AT VARIOUS ALTITUDES (INCLUDING EXTREMELY LOW ONES) SIMULTANEOUSLY AT 
RANGES UP TO 300 KM, AND TO GUIDE FIGHTER-INTERCEPTORS TO THEM.   AS A 
RESULT, THE LIMITS OF THE US NAVY'S ANTI-AIR AND ANTI-MISSILE DEFENSE WERE 
INCREASED SIGNIFICANTLY, REACHING 450-500 KM.

     EQUIPPING THE NEW AIRCRAFT CARRIERS WITH GRUMMAN S-3A "VIKING" ASW 
AIRCRAFT WITH AUTOMATED ON-BOARD SEARCH-TARGETING SYSTEMS, AS WELL AS THE 
WIDE DEPLOYMENT ON ESCORT SHIPS OF ALL CLASSES (ALL THE WAY TO FRIGATES) OF 
ASW HELICOPTERS, AS WELL AS ASROC GUIDED MISSILE SYSTEMS AND NEW 
HYDROACOUSTIC COMPLEXES POSSESSING EXPANDED SEARCH CAPABILITIES, 
SIGNIFICANTLY INCREASED THE ASW POTENTIAL OF THE AIRCRAFT CARRIER STRIKE 
FORMATIONS.

     AS A RESULT OF THE IMPROVEMENTS TO THE NAVAL ARMAMENTS OF THE POTENTIAL 
ENEMY, THE "ANTI-AIRCRAFT CARRIER" CAPABILITIES OF THE SOVIET PROJECT 675 
PLARK (EVEN AFTER THEIR MODERNIZATION) LOOKED ALREADY INADEQUATE FOR THE 
GUARANTEED DESTRUCTION OF THE ENEMY'S GROUPINGS.   THE CREATION OF A NEW, 
SIGNIFICANTLY MORE POWERFUL AND LONG-RANGE, SUBMERGED LAUNCH MISSILE SYSTEM 
WAS REQUIRED, WHICH WOULD SUPPORT CONDUCTING MASKED STRIKES FROM UNDERWATER 
AGAINST SHIPS FROM GREAT DISTANCES WITH THE CAPABILITY FOR SELECTIVE TARGET 
DESTRUCTION.

     A NEW CARRIER WAS ALSO REQUIRED FOR THE NEW COMPLEX, CAPABLE OF 
CONDUCTING SALVO FIRE FROM A SUBMERGED POSITION OF 20-24 MISSILES (ACCORDING 
TO CALCULATIONS, IT WAS JUST SUCH A CONCENTRATION OF DESTRUCTION RESOURCES 
THAT WOULD ALLOW FOR THE "PENETRATION" OF THE PRO [ANTI-MISSILE DEFENSE] OF 
THE PROSPECTIVE AMERICAN AIRCRAFT CARRIER FORMATION).   IN ADDITION, THE NEW 
MISSILE CARRIER HAD TO POSSESS INCREASED CONCEALABILITY, SPEED AND SUBMERSION 
DEPTH, WHICH WOULD PROVIDE IT THE ABILITY TO OVERCOME THE ASW DEFENSE OF THE 
ENEMY AND TO BREAK AWAY FROM TRACKING.

     EXPLORATORY WORK FOR THE CREATION OF THE 3RD GENERATION  UNDERWATER 
MISSILE CARRIER BEGAN ON THE "GRANIT" IN 1967, AND IN  1969, THE VMF WAS 
GIVEN THE OFFICIAL TACTICAL-TECHNICAL MISSION FOR THE CREATION OF A "HEAVY 
UNDERWATER MISSILE CRUISER", EQUIPPED WITH THE OPERATIONAL-PURPOSE MISSILE 
SYSTEM.

     THE PROJECT, WHICH RECEIVED THE INDEX "949" AND THE CODENAME "GRANIT" 
WAS DEVELOPED AT THE LMPB "RUBIN" UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF THE DESIGNER P.P. 
PUSTYNTSEV.   AFTER HIS DEATH IN 1977, I.L. BARANOV WAS NAMED THE CHIEF 
DESIGNER AND V.N. IVANOV - THE CHIEF OBSERVER FROM THE VMF.   WHEN DEVELOPING 
THE NEW MISSILE CARRIER, IT WAS PROPOSED TO EMPLOY WIDELY THE 
SCIENTIFIC-TECHNICAL WORK   ALREADY COMPLETED AND INDIVIDUAL DESIGN SOLUTIONS 
ACHIEVED WHEN  CREATING THE PROJECT 661 SUBMARINE, THE FASTEST IN THE WORLD.

     THE "GRANIT" MISSILE SYSTEM, CREATED BY OKB-52 (NOW THE NPO 
MASHINOSTROYENIYA [MACHINE-BUILDING SCIENTIFIC PRODUCTION  ASSOCIATION], HAD 
TO MEET EXTREMELY HIGH REQUIREMENTS:   A MAXIMUM RANGE OF NO LESS THAN 500 
KM, AND A MAXIMUM SPEED OF NO LESS THAN  2500 KM/HR.   THE "GRANIT" DIFFERED 
FROM PREVIOUS COMPLEXES FOR THIS PURPOSE IN ITS FLEXIBLE ADAPTABLE 
TRAJECTORIES, LAUNCH UNIVERSALITY (UNDERWATER AND SURFACE), AS WELL AS THE 
CARRIERS (SUBMARINES AND SURFACE SHIPS), SALVO FIRE WITH A LOGICAL SPATIAL 
MISSILE ARRANGEMENT, AND AN INTERFERENCE RESISTANT SELECTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM.  
 IT PERMITTED FIRING AGAINST TARGETS, THE COORDINATES OF WHICH WERE KNOWN 
WITH GREAT ERRORS, AS WELL AS WITH VERY OUTDATED DATA.   ALL THE OPERATIONS 
FOR DAILY AND LAUNCH SERVICING OF THE MISSILES WERE AUTOMATED.   AS A RESULT, 
THE "GRANIT" POSSESSED THE REAL ABILITY TO ACCOMPLISH ANY MISSION OF NAVAL 
COMBAT AT ONE TIME WITH ONE CARRIER.

     HOWEVER, THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE LONG-RANGE ANTI-SHIP MISSILE COMPLEX 
TO A SIGNIFICANT DEGREE WAS DETERMINED BY THE CAPABILITIES OF THE 
RECONNAISSANCE AND TARGETING RESOURCES.   THE "USPEKH" SYSTEM, THE FOUNDATION 
OF WHICH WAS LAID BY THE TU-95 AIRCRAFT, DID NOT POSSESS THE NECESSARY COMBAT 
STABILITY.

     IN THE BEGINNING OF THE 60'S, THE TASK OF CREATING THE FIRST SYSTEM IN 
THE WORLD FOR SPACE, ALL-WEATHER SURFACE TARGET OBSERVATION IN ALL THE 
AQUATIC SPACES OF THE WORLD OCEAN, AND FOR PROVIDING TARGETING THROUGH THE 
TRANSMISSION OF DATA DIRECTLY TO THE WEAPONS CARRIERS OR GROUND (SHIP) 
COMMAND POSTS, WAS GIVEN TO THE BRANCH SCIENCE AND INDUSTRY.   THE FIRST 
GOVERNMENT RESOLUTION  ON THE LAUNCHING OF EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN WORK FOR THE 
CREATION OF A NAVAL SPACE RECONNAISSANCE AND TARGETING SYSTEM (MKRTS) WAS 
ISSUED IN MARCH OF 1961.   THE GREATEST SCIENTIFIC CENTERS AND DESIGN  
COLLECTIVES OF THE COUNTRY WERE BROUGHT INTO THIS LARGE-SCALE WORK, IN 
PARTICULAR THE PHYSICAL ENERGY INSTITUTE AND THE I.V. KURCHATOV INSTITUTE OF 
ATOMIC ENERGY.   THE THEORETICAL BASES FOR BUILDING THE SYSTEM, THE ORBIT 
PARAMETERS AND MUTUAL POSITION OF THE SPACE APPARATUS WERE DEVELOPED WITH THE 
DIRECT PARTICIPATION OF THE ACADEMICIAN M.V. KELDYSH.

     THE LEAD ORGANIZATION RESPONSIBLE FOR THE CREATION OF THE MKRTS, WAS 
INITIALLY DETERMINED TO BE THE OKB-52 (LATER - NPO "MASHINOSTROYENIYA"), 
HEADED BY GENERAL DESIGNER V.N. CHELOMEY.   RESPONSIBLE FOR THE DEVELOPMENT 
OF THE UNIQUE (TO THIS DAY THERE IS NOTHING LIKE IT IN THE WORLD) NUCLEAR 
ON-BOARD POWER UNIT FOR ISZ [ARTIFICIAL EARTH SATELLITES], INCLUDED IN THE 
SYSTEM, WAS THE OKB-670 COLLECTIVE (NPO "KRASNAYA ZVEZDA") OF MINSREDMASH 
[MINISTRY OF MEDIUM MACHINE-BUILDING].

     HOWEVER, NPO "MASHINOSTROYENIYA" DID NOT POSSESS THE NECESSARY 
PRODUCTION POWERS THAT WOULD SUPPORT LAUNCHING THE SERIES OF SPACE APPARATUS 
FOR THE VMF.   AS A RESULT, IN MAY 1969, IT WAS DECIDED TO INCLUDE THE 
LENINGRAD M.V. FRUNZE KB [DESIGN BUREAU] AND FACTORY "ARSENAL", BECOMING THE 
LEADERS IN REALIZING THE "NAVAL" SATELLITE PROGRAM.

     THE MKRTS SYSTEM "LEGENDA" INCLUDED TWO TYPES OF SPACE APPARATUS:   A 
SATELLITE WITH AN ON-BOARD RADAR STATION AND NUCLEAR POWER PLANT, AS WELL AS 
A SATELLITE WITH A SPACE RADIO-TECHNICAL RECONNAISSANCE STATION, EQUIPPED 
WITH A SOLAR POWER UNIT.

     BY THE BEGINNING OF 1970, THE FACTORY "ARSENAL" EMBARKED ON THE 
PRODUCTION OF EXPERIMENTAL MODELS OF THE SPACE APPARATUS.   DESIGN  FLIGHT 
TESTING OF THE RADAR RECONNAISSANCE SPACE APPARATUS BEGAN IN  1973, AND OF 
THE RADIO-TECHNICAL RECONNAISSANCE SATELLITE - A YEAR LATER.   THE RADAR 
RECONNAISSANCE SPACE APPARATUS WAS BROUGHT INTO SERVICE IN 1975, AND THE 
FULLY EQUIPPED COMPLEX (WITH THE RADIO-TECHNICAL RECONNAISSANCE SPACE 
APPARATUS) IN 1978.

     IN 1979-1988, SEVERAL PHASES OF MODERNIZATION OF THE NAVAL 
RECONNAISSANCE SPACE APPARATUS WERE CONDUCTED, WHICH FACILITATED A 
SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN ALL THE PARAMETERS OF THE SPACE COMPLEXES (AN 
IMPROVEMENT IN THE OBSERVATION AND IDENTIFICATION  CHARACTERISTICS, AN 
INCREASE IN THE BAND OF SIMULTANEOUS OBSERVATION, ETC.).   THE SERVICE LIFE 
OF THE SPACE APPARATUS' FLIGHT OPERATIONS WAS INCREASED BY 5-10 TIMES, WHICH 
IN TURN  ALLOWED FOR A SIGNIFICANT DECREASE IN THE ANNUAL SERVICE OF THE 
SPACE APPARATUS TO A LEVEL BALANCED WITH THE PRODUCTION  CAPABILITIES OF THE 
MANUFACTURING ENTERPRISES.

     THE MKRTS SYSTEM'S HIGH EFFECTIVENESS WAS CONFIRMED IN PRACTICE IN 1982, 
DURING THE ENGLISH-ARGENTINE CONFLICT AROUND THE MALVINAS (FALKLAND) ISLANDS. 
  THE SYSTEM ALLOWED FOR THE COMPLETE TRACKING AND PROGNOSIS OF THE TACTICAL 
SITUATION.   SPECIFICALLY, WITH ITS HELP, THE VMF MAIN STAFF PREDICTED 
PRECISELY THE MOMENT OF THE ASSAULT LANDING ON THE ISLANDS BY THE ENGLISH 
ASSAULT TROOPS.

     THE SPACE RADIO-TECHNICAL RECONNAISSANCE COMPLEX SUPPORTS THE DETECTION 
AND POSITION FINDING OF OBJECTS EMITTING ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS.   THE SPACE 
APPARATUS HAS A PRECISION THREE-AXIS SPATIAL ORIENTATION AND STABILIZATION 
SYSTEM.   A SOLAR ENERGY POWER UNIT IS USED AS A POWER SOURCE, IN COMBINATION 
WITH CHEMICAL BUFFER BATTERIES.   THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL LIQUID ROCKET UNIT 
SUPPORTS STABILIZATION OF THE SPACE APPARATUS, ALTITUDE CORRECTION OF ITS 
ORBIT, AND PRE-BOOST IMPULSE WHEN MOVING THE SPACE APPARATUS INTO ORBIT.

     FOR DELIVERY OF THE SPACE APPARATUS, THE "TSIKLON-2" CARRIER MISSILE IS 
USED (CREATED AT THE DNEPROPETROVSK KB "YUZHNOYE" UNDER THE LEADERSHIP OF 
M.K. YANGEL).   THE SPACE APPARATUS' WEIGHT IS 3300 KG, IT'S WORKING ORBIT 
ALTITUDE IS 420 KM, AND THE ORBITAL INCLINATION IS 65O.

     THE 17K114 SPACE COMPLEX IS DESIGNED FOR CONDUCTING NAVAL SPACE 
RECONNAISSANCE AND TARGETING.   ITS COMPOSITION INCLUDES THE 17F16 SPACE 
APPARATUS, EQUIPPED WITH A TWO-SIDED SIDE-SCAN RADAR, WHICH PROVIDES 
ALL-WEATHER AND 24-HOUR OBSERVATION OF SURFACE TARGETS.   IN THE CAPACITY OF 
AN ON-BOARD ENERGY SOURCE, IT USES A NUCLEAR POWER UNIT, WHICH AFTER THE 
APPARATUS COMPLETES ITS ACTIVE OPERATION IS SEPARATED AND MOVED TO A HIGHER 
"ACTIVE ILLUMINATION" ORBIT.

     A MULTIFUNCTIONAL LIQUID ROCKET UNIT SERVES FOR THE SPACE APPARATUS' 
STABILIZATION AND THE CORRECTION OF ITS ORBITAL ALTITUDE, AS WELL AS FOR 
PUTTING OUT A PRE-BOOST IMPULSE FOR DELIVERING THE SPACE APPARATUS INTO ORBIT.

     THE RADAR RECONNAISSANCE SATELLITE'S WEIGHT IS 4300 KG, ITS WORKING 
ORBIT ALTITUDE IS 280 KM, AND ITS ORBITAL INCLINATION IS 65O.   THE 
"TSIKLON-2" CARRIER MISSILE IS USED FOR DELIVERING THE 17F16 SPACE APPARATUS 
ALSO.

     BESIDES THE SPACE COMPONENT, INCLUDED IN THE MKRTS WERE SHIP POSTS FOR 
RECEIVING INFORMATION DIRECTLY FROM THE SPACE APPARATUS, SUPPORTING ITS 
PROCESSING AND TRANSMISSION OF TARGETING FOR THE USE OF THE MISSILE WEAPONRY 
(DEVELOPER - KIEV NPO "KVANT", CHIEF DESIGNER T.E. STAFANOVICH).

     IN NOVEMBER OF 1975, TESTING BEGAN ON THE "GRANIT" MISSILE SYSTEM, 
COMPLETED IN AUGUST OF 1983.   HOWEVER, EVEN PRIOR TO THEIR COMPLETION, IN 
1980, THE HEAD SUBMARINE CRUISER K-525 ENTERED THE SERVICE OF THE NORTHERN 
FLEET (THE FIRST COMMANDER, CAPTAIN 1ST RANK A. PAUK, SUBSEQUENTLY REAR 
ADMIRAL; CONDUCTED MOORING AND PERFORMANCE TESTING AND CAPTAIN 1ST RANK A. 
ILYUSHKIN BROUGHT IT OUT OF THE FACTORY).   OVERALL, IT WAS PROPOSED THAT 20 
PLRKS OF THIS TYPE BE BUILT.

     AFTER THE FIRST TWO SHIPS BUILT ACCORDING TO PROJECT 949, CONSTRUCTION 
BEGAN ON SUBMARINE CRUISERS ACCORDING TO THE IMPROVED PROGRAM 949A (CODE 
"ANTEY").   AS A RESULT OF THE MODERNIZATION, THE BOAT RECEIVED AN ADDITIONAL 
COMPARTMENT ALLOWING FOR THE IMPROVEMENT OF THE INTERNAL COMPONENT OF 
ARMAMENTS RESOURCES AND ON-BOARD INSTRUMENTATION.   AS A RESULT, THE SHIP'S 
WATER DISPLACEMENT INCREASED A LITTLE, WHILE AT THE SAME TIME MANAGING TO 
DECREASE THE LEVEL OF REVEALING POLES AND INSTALLING IMPROVED INSTRUMENTS.

     ACCORDING TO THE ASSESSMENTS OF SEVERAL DOMESTIC SPECIALISTS, ACCORDING 
TO THE "COST EFFECTIVENESS" CRITERIA, THE PLARK OF PROJECT 949 IS THE MOST 
PREFERABLE MEANS FOR COMBATING THE ENEMY'S AIRCRAFT CARRIERS.   ACCORDING TO 
THE STATUS IN THE MID 80'S, THE COST OF ONE BOAT OF PROJECT 949A AMOUNTED TO 
226 MILLION RUBLES, WHICH ON THE AVERAGE AMOUNTED TO ONLY 10% OF THE COST OF 
THE MULTIPURPOSE AIRCRAFT CARRIER "ROOSEVELT" (2.3 BILLION DOLLARS WITHOUT 
INCLUDING THE COST OF ITS AVIATION WING).   MEANWHILE, ACCORDING TO THE 
CALCULATIONS OF VMF EXPERTS AND INDUSTRY, ONE NUCLEAR SUBMARINE COULD TAKE AN 
AIRCRAFT CARRIER AND SEVERAL OF ITS GUARD VESSELS OUT OF COMMISSION WITH A 
HIGH DEGREE OF PROBABILITY.   HOWEVER, OTHER SUFFICIENTLY AUTHORITATIVE 
SPECIALISTS RAISED DOUBTS ABOUT THESE ASSESSMENTS, FEELING THAT THE RELATIVE 
EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PLARK IS TOO HIGH.   THE FACT SHOULD HAVE BEEN 
CONSIDERED THAT AN AIRCRAFT CARRIER IS A UNIVERSAL COMBAT RESOURCE, CAPABLE 
OF ACCOMPLISHING A RATHER WIDE RANGE OF MISSIONS, WHILE THE SUBMARINES ARE 
SHIPS WITH A CONSIDERABLY NARROWER SPECIALIZATION.

     [SEE TABLE 1]

     K-119, K-141, K-148, K-206, K-266, K-410 AND K-525 ENTERED THE SERVICE 
OF THE NORTHERN FLEET.   THE REST OF THE SHIPS ARE IN  SERVICE IN THE PACIFIC 
OCEAN.

     CURRENTLY, THE BOATS OF PROJECT 949 HAVE BEEN PLACED ON  RESERVE.   
MEANWHILE, THE GROUP OF PROJECT 949A SUBMARINES, ALONG WITH THE AIRCRAFT OF 
THE NAVAL MISSILE-CARRYING AND LONG-RANGE AVIATION TU-22M-3, ARE ACTUALLY THE 
ONLY RESOURCE CAPABLE OF EFFECTIVELY COUNTERING THE US STRIKE AIRCRAFT 
CARRIER FORMATIONS.   ALONG WITH THIS, THE GROUP'S COMBAT UNITS CAN OPERATE 
SUCCESSFULLY AGAINST SHIPS OF ALL CLASSES DURING CONFLICTS OF ANY INTENSITY.

     THE DURABLE HULL OF THE DUAL HULL BOAT, MADE FROM STEEL, IS SEPARATED 
INTO 10 COMPARTMENTS.   ALONG THE SIDES OF THE CONNING TOWER, HAVING A 
RELATIVELY GREAT LENGTH, OUTSIDE THE DURABLE HULL ARE SITUATED 24 PAIRED 
ON-BOARD MISSILE CONTAINERS, INCLINED AT A 40O ANGLE.

     THE SHIP'S POWER PLANT HAS A BLOCK DESIGN AND INCLUDES TWO OK-650B 
UNDERWATER TYPE REACTORS AND TWO SGTZA OK-9 STEAM TURBINES (98000 HP), 
WORKING ON TWO PROPELLER SHAFTS THROUGH REDUCERS, DECREASING THE PROPELLER 
SHAFTS' REVOLUTION FREQUENCY.   THE STEAM PIPE UNIT IS SITUATED IN TWO 
SEPARATE COMPARTMENTS.   THERE ARE TWO DG-190 (2X3200 KWT) TURBO-GENERATORS.

     THERE ARE TWO 3200 KWT TURBO-GENERATORS, TWO DG-190S AND TWO STEERING 
DEVICES.   THE BOAT IS EQUIPPED WITH THE MGK-540 "SKAT-3" HYDROACOUSTIC SET, 
AS WELL AS A SYSTEM FOR RADIO COMMUNICATIONS, COMBAT CONTROL, SPACE 
RECONNAISSANCE AND TARGETING.   THE RECEIPT OF RECONNAISSANCE DATA FROM THE 
SPACE APPARATUS OR AIRCRAFT IS PERFORMED IN A SUBMERGED POSITION VIA SPECIAL 
ANTENNAS.   AFTER PROCESSING THE RECEIVED INFORMATION, IT IS ENTERED INTO THE 
SHIP'S BIUS [COMBAT INFORMATION CONTROL SYSTEM].

     THE SHIP IS EQUIPPED WITH THE AUTOMATED "SIMFONIYA-U" NAVIGATION SYSTEM 
WHICH HAS INCREASED ACCURACY, AN INCREASED RADIUS OF OPERATION, AND A LARGE 
PROCESSED INFORMATION CAPACITY.

     THE MAIN WEAPONRY OF THE MISSILE CRUISER   - 24 P-700 "GRANIT" 
SUPERSONIC CRUISE MISSILE SYSTEMS, A 3M-45 MISSILE, EQUIPPED WITH BOTH 
NUCLEAR (500 KT) AS WELL AS FRAGMENTATION WARHEADS WITH A MASS OF 750 KG, 
EQUIPPED WITH A KR-93 TURBOJET SUSTAINER ENGINE WITH A RINGED SOLID-FUEL 
ROCKET BOOSTER.   THE MAXIMUM RANGE OF FIRE IS 550 KM, MAXIMUM SPEED 
CORRESPONDS TO M=2.5 AT HIGH ALTITUDES AND M=1.5 AT LOW ALTITUDES.   THE 
MISSILE'S LAUNCH WEIGHT IS 7000KG, LENGTH - 19.5 M, CASING DIAMETER - 0.88M, 
AND WING SPAN - 2.6M.

     THE MISSILES CAN BE FIRED EITHER INDIVIDUALLY OR IN A SALVO (UP TO 24 
PKRS LAUNCHED AT A HIGH RATE).   IN THE LATTER CASE, TARGET DISTRIBUTION IS 
CARRIED OUT IN A SALVO.   IT SUPPORTS THE CREATION  OF A DENSE GROUP OF 
MISSILES WHICH MAKES OVERCOMING THE ENEMY'S PRO EASIER.

     ORGANIZING THE FLIGHT OF ALL THE MISSILES OF THE SALVO, FINDING THE 
ORDER AND "COVERING" IT WITH AN ENGAGED RADAR SIGHT ALLOWS THE PKR TO CARRY 
OUT THE SUSTAINED PORTION OF FLIGHT IN RADIO SILENCE.   IN THE PROCESS OF THE 
MISSILES' FLIGHT, THE OPTIMAL TARGET DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN THEM WITHIN THE 
ORDER IS CONDUCTED (THE ALGORITHM FOR ACCOMPLISHING THIS MISSION WAS 
DEVELOPED BY THE VMF ARMAMENTS INSTITUTE AND THE NPO "GRANIT").

     THE SUPERSONIC SPEED AND THE COMPLEX FLIGHT TRAJECTORY, THE HIGH LEVEL 
OF INTERFERENCE PROTECTION FOR THE RADIOELECTRONIC RESOURCES AND THE PRESENCE 
OF A SPECIAL SYSTEM FOR DIVERTING ENEMY SURFACE-TO-AIR AND AVIATION MISSILES 
ENSURES THE "GRANIT", WHEN  FIRED IN A SALVO, A RELATIVELY HIGH PROBABILITY 
OF OVERCOMING THE PVO AND PRO SYSTEMS OF THE AVIATION FORMATION.

     THE AUTOMATED TORPEDO COMPLEX OF THE SUBMARINE ALLOWS FOR THE USE OF 
TORPEDOES, AS WELL AS "VODOPAD" AND "VETER" ROCKET-TORPEDOES AT ALL DIVE 
DEPTHS.   IT INCLUDES FOUR 533-MM AND FOUR 650-MM TORPEDO APPARATUS, SITUATED 
IN THE FORWARD PORTION OF THE HULL.

     [SEE TABLE 2]

     THE "GRANIT" COMPLEX, CREATED IN THE 80'S, BY THE YEAR 2000 HAS ALREADY 
BECOME OUTDATED.   PRIMARILY THIS RELATES TO THE MAXIMUM RANGE OF FIRE AND 
INTERFERENCE PROTECTION OF THE MISSILE.   THE COMPONENT BASE USED AS THE 
FOUNDATION OF THE SYSTEM HAS ALSO BECOME OUTDATED.   MEANWHILE, DEVELOPMENT 
OF A FUNDAMENTALLY NEW OPERATIONAL ANTI-SHIP MISSILE COMPLEX CURRENTLY IS NOT 
POSSIBLE FOR ECONOMIC REASONS.   THE ONLY REALISTIC WAY FOR SUPPORTING THE 
COMBAT POTENTIAL OF THE DOMESTIC "ANTI-AIRCRAFT CARRIER" FORCES IS, 
OBVIOUSLY, THE CREATION OF A MODERNIZED VARIANT OF THE "GRANIT" COMPLEX FOR 
PLACEMENT ON THE PLARK 949A DURING THEIR PERIODIC REPAIR AND MODERNIZATION.

     ACCORDING TO ASSESSMENTS, THE COMBAT EFFECTIVENESS OF THE MODERNIZED 
MISSILE COMPLEX, IN DEVELOPMENT RIGHT NOW, SHOULD INCREASE BY APPROXIMATELY 
THREE TIMES IN COMPARISON TO THE "GRANIT" MISSILE SYSTEM CURRENTLY IN 
SERVICE.   THE REARMING OF THE SUBMARINES IS SUPPOSED TO BE CONDUCTED 
DIRECTLY AT THE BASING LOCATIONS, AND WITH THAT, THE TIMEFRAMES AND 
EXPENDITURES FOR REALIZING THE PROGRAM SHOULD BE MINIMALIZED.

     AS A RESULT, THE EXISTING GROUPING OF SUBMARINES OF PROJECT 949A COULD 
EFFECTIVELY FUNCTION UNTIL THE 2020'S.   ITS POTENTIAL WILL BE EXPANDED EVEN 
MORE AS A RESULT OF EQUIPPING THE SHIPS WITH A VARIANT OF THE "GRANIT" 
MISSILE SYSTEM CAPABLE OF PRECISION  DESTRUCTION OF GROUND TARGETS WITH A 
NON-NUCLEAR CHARGE. ATTACHMENTS: OSCAR TABLE 1.XLS (ATTACHMENT NOT INCLUDED) 
OSCAR TABLE 2.XLS (ATTACHMENT NOT INCLUDED) OSCAR.BMP (ATTACHMENT NOT 
INCLUDED)